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Miscarriage: causes, triggers, complications & more (an interesting list!!)


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November 24th, 2009, 02:27 PM
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Causes of Miscarriage (Diseases Database):The follow list shows some of the possible medical causes of Miscarriage that are listed by the Diseases Database:

Amniocentesis
Anticardiolipin syndrome
Misoprostol
Parvovirus B19 infection
Listeria monocytogenes
Sickle cell disease
Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria
Rubella
Cone biopsy of uterine cervix
Carboprost tromethamine
Gemeprost
Cervical incompetence
Chorionic villus sampling
Endometriosis
Mifepristone
Dinoprostone
Systemic lupus erythematosus

Miscarriage Causes: Book ExcerptsDifferential Diagnosis -
Fever – Recurrent
Medical causes - Low birth weight
Causes - Abortion
Medical causes - Low birth weight
Differential Overview - Chronic/Recurrent Abdominal Pain
Causes - Abortion
Principal Causes of Recurrent Infection - Recurrent Infection
Medical causes - Low birth weight

Miscarriage as a complication of other conditions:
Other conditions that might have Miscarriage as a complication may, potentially, be an underlying cause of Miscarriage. Our database lists the following as having Miscarriage as a complication of that condition:

Amphetamine abuse
Celiac Disease
Chromosome 16q, partial duplication
Complete Trisomy 18 syndrome
Diethylstilbestrol
Diethylstilbestrol antenatal infection
Duplication 18
Ecstasy abuse
Edward Syndrome
Edwards Syndrome
Food poisoning
Graves Disease
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Hereditary hypothyroidism
Hyperthermia induced defects
Limb-body wall complex
Lupus
Lyme disease
Maternal hyperphenylalaninemia
Midline field defects
Oligohydramnios
Partial Trisomy 18 Syndrome
Pregnancy
Primary hypothyroidism
Rubella
Smoking
Toxoplasmosis
Triploid syndrome
Trisomy 18 mosaicism
Trisomy 18 Syndrome

Miscarriage as a symptom:
Conditions listing Miscarriage as a symptom may also be potential underlying causes of Miscarriage. Our database lists the following as having Miscarriage as a symptom of that condition:

Bilateral renal agenesis dominant type
Choriocarcinoma
Classical Potter syndrome
Cocaine fetopathy
Endometrial conditions
Factor XIII Deficiency
Factor XIII deficiency, congenital
Factor XIII, A1 subunit Deficiency
Factor XIII, B subunit Deficiency
Female reproductive toxicity
Female reproductive toxicity - Dioxins
Female reproductive toxicity - Ethylene Oxide
Female reproductive toxicity - Pesticides
Habitual abortion
Human parvovirus B19 infection - fetal
Intrauterine infections
Lead poisoning
Listeriosis - granulomatous infantiseptica
Male reproductive toxicity - Benzene
Nondisjunction
Phenylketonuria
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Polyploidy
Reproductive toxicity - Vinyl Chloride
Reproductive toxicity - Xylene (mixed isomers)
Schisis association
Vitamin A embryopathy

Medications or substances causing Miscarriage:The following drugs, medications, substances or toxins are some of the possible causes of Miscarriage as a symptom. This list is incomplete and various other drugs or substances may cause your symptoms. Always advise your doctor of any medications or treatments you are using, including prescription, over-the-counter, supplements, herbal or alternative treatments.


Cetrotide
Antagon

About medication causes:Another misdiagnosis possibility is that a particular medication or substance may be the real cause of the disease. Certain medications, chemicals, toxins or substances may possibly be underlying causes of Miscarriage. Side effects of medications, or exposure to toxins, chemicals, or other substances may cause a symptom or condition. Hence, they become possible underlying causes of Miscarriage but are often misdiagnosed or overlooked as a cause. For a general overview of this misdiagnosis issue, see Medication Underlying Cause Misdiagnosis



Cause statistics for Miscarriage:
The following are statistics from various sources about the causes of Miscarriage:

50% of spontaneous abortions was due to chromosomal anomalies in Australia (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
Poorly controlled diabetes before conception and during first trimester of pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortions in 15-20% of pregnancies in the US 2001 (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
more statistics...»
Related information on causes of Miscarriage:As with all medical conditions, there may be many causal factors. Further relevant information on causes of Miscarriage may be found in:

Risk factors for Miscarriage
Medications that may cause Miscarriage
Hidden causes of Miscarriage
Causes of Miscarriage: Online Medical Books16 MEDICAL BOOKS ONLINE! Review excerpts from medical books online, free, without registration, for more information about the causes of Miscarriage.

Fever – Recurrent: Differential Diagnosis
(In A Page: Pediatric Signs and Symptoms)

Repeated viral infections
–Most common cause of recurrent febrile episodes in childhood
–Start of day care or change of geographic location may be related
Urinary tract infection (UTI)
–May be self-limited but recur especially if underlying anomaly exists
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
–May present with recurrent febrile episodes due to one initial infection
Other specific viral syndromes
–Parvovirus B19
–CMV
Immunodeficiency
–Repeated bacterial infections should lead to investigation of immune status
Dental abscess (non-dental abscesses typically present with prolonged daily fever)
Chronic meningococcemia
Acute rheumatic fever
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA)
Behçet disease
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) or Hibernian Fever
–Autosomal dominant disease with fever, myalgias with migratory pattern, conjunctivitis and rash
Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome or familial cold urticaria
–Rash, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis
–Precipitated by exposure to cold
Muckle-Wells syndrome
–Similar presentation to familial cold urticaria
–Symptoms not triggered by cold
Brucellosis
–Most prevalent around the Mediterranean and Arabic countries, also present in South America and India
Yersiniosis
Typhoid fever
Rat-bite fever
Malaria
Factitious fever


Source: In A Page: Pediatric Signs and Symptoms, 2007

Low birth weight: Medical causes
(Handbook of Signs & Symptoms (Third Edition))
This section lists some fetal and placental causes of low birth weight as well as the associated signs and symptoms pres-ent in the neonate at birth.

Chromosomal aberrationsAbnormalities in the number, size, or configuration of chromosomes can cause low birth weight and possibly multiple congenital anomalies in a premature or SGA neonate

For example, a neonate with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) may be SGA and have prominent epicanthal folds, a flat-bridged nose, a protruding tongue, palmar simian creases, muscular hypotonia, and an umbilical hernia.

Cytomegalovirus infectionAlthough low birth weight in cytomegalovirus infection is usually associated with premature birth, the neonate may be SGA

Assessment at birth may reveal these classic signs: petechiae and ecchymoses, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly, which increases for several days. The neonate may also have a high fever, lymphadenopathy, tachypnea, and dyspnea, along with prolonged bleeding at puncture sites.

Placental dysfunctionLow birth weight and a wasted appearance occur in an SGA neonate

He may be symmetrically short or may appear relatively long for his low weight. Additional findings reflect the underlying cause. For example, if maternal hyperparathyroidism caused placental dysfunction, the neonate may exhibit muscle jerking and twitching, carpopedal spasm, ankle clonus, vomiting, tachycardia, and tachypnea.

Rubella (congenital)Usually, the low-birth-weight neonate with this congenital rubellais born at term but is SGA

A characteristic “blueberry muffin” rash accompanies cataracts, purpuric lesions, hepatosplenomegaly, and a large anterior fontanel

Abnormal heart sounds, if present, vary with the type of associated congenital heart defect.

Varicella (congenital)Low birth weight is accompanied by cataracts and skin vesicles.



Source: Handbook of Signs & Symptoms (Third Edition), 2006

Abortion: Causes
(Professional Guide to Diseases (Eighth Edition))
Spontaneous abortion may result from fetal, placental, or maternal factors. Fetal factors, which usually cause such abortions at up to 12 weeks’gestation, include the following:
❑ defective embryologic development resulting from abnormal chromosome division (most common cause of fetal death)
❑ faulty implantation of the fertilized ovum
❑ failure of the endometrium to accept the fertilized ovum.
Placental factors usually cause abortion around the 14th week of gestation, when the placenta takes over the hormone production necessary to maintain the pregnancy. These factors include:

❑ premature separation of the normally implanted placenta
❑ abnormal placental implantation.
Maternal factors usually cause abortion between the 11th and 19th week of gestation and include:

❑ maternal infection, abnormalities of the reproductive organs (especially an incompetent cervix, in which the cervix dilates painlessly in the second trimester)
❑ endocrine problems, such as thyroid dysfunction or a luteal phase defect
❑ trauma
❑ phospholipid antibody disorder
❑ blood group incompatibility
❑ drug ingestion (particularly uterotonic agents).
The goal of therapeutic abortion is to preserve the mother’s mental or physical health in cases of rape, unplanned pregnancy, or medical conditions such as moderate or severe cardiac dysfunction.



Source: Professional Guide to Diseases (Eighth Edition), 2005

Low birth weight: Medical causes
(Professional Guide to Signs & Symptoms (Fifth Edition))
This section lists some fetal and placental causes of low birth weight as well as the associated signs and symptoms present in the neonate at birth.

Chromosomal aberrationsAbnormalities in the number, size, or configuration of chromosomes can cause low birth weight and possibly multiple congenital anomalies in a premature or SGA neonate. For example, a neonate with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) may be SGA and have prominent epicanthal folds, a flat-bridged nose, a protruding tongue, palmar simian creases, muscular hypotonia, and an umbilical hernia.

Cytomegalovirus infectionAlthough low birth weight in this disorder is usually associated with premature birth, some neonates may be SGA. Assessment at birth may reveal these classic signs: petechiae and ecchymoses, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly, which increases for several days. The neonate may also have a high fever, lymphadenopathy, tachypnea, and dyspnea, along with prolonged bleeding at puncture sites.

Placental dysfunctionLow birth weight and a wasted appearance occur in an SGA neonate. The neonate may be symmetrically short or may appear relatively long for his low weight. Additional findings reflect the underlying cause. For example, if maternal hyperparathyroidism caused placental dysfunction, the neonate may exhibit muscle jerking and twitching, carpopedal spasm, ankle clonus, vomiting, tachycardia, and tachypnea.

Rubella (congenital)Usually, the low-birth-weight neonate with this disease is born at term but is SGA. A characteristic “blueberry muffin” rash accompanies cataracts, purpuric lesions, hepatosplenomegaly, and a large anterior fontanel. Abnormal heart sounds, if present, vary with the type of associated congenital heart defect.

Toxoplasmosis (congenital)The low-birth-weight neonate may be either premature or SGA and may have hydrocephalus or microcephalus. Associated findings include fever, seizures, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, and rash. Other defects, which may occur months or years later, include strabismus, blindness, epilepsy, and mental retardation.

Varicella (congenital)Low birth weight is accompanied by cataracts and skin vesicles.



Source: Professional Guide to Signs & Symptoms (Fifth Edition), 2006

Chronic/Recurrent Abdominal Pain: Differential Overview
(Field Guide to Bedside Diagnosis)
❑ Irritable bowel syndrome
❑ Peptic ulcer disease
❑ Cholecystitis
❑ Chronic pancreatitis
❑ Inflammatory bowel disease
❑ Intermittent mesenteric ischemia
❑ Pancreatic cancer
❑ Gastric cancer
❑ Endometriosis
❑ Recurrent intestinal obstruction
❑ Sickle cell anemia
❑ Radiculopathy
❑ Adrenal insufficiency
❑ Lead poisoning
❑ Porphyria
» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Field Guide to Bedside Diagnosis, 2007

Abortion: Causes
(Handbook of Diseases)
Spontaneous abortion may result from fetal, placental, or maternal factors. (See Types of spontaneous abortion.) Fetal factors usually cause abortions before the 12th week of gestation and include:
•defective embryologic development resulting from abnormal chromosome division (most common cause of fetal death) •faulty implantation of the fertilized ovum •failure of the endometrium to accept the fertilized ovum. Placental factors usually cause abortion around the 14th week of gestation, when the placenta takes over the hormone production necessary to maintain the pregnancy. These factors include:
•premature separation of the normally implanted placenta •abnormal placental implantation. Maternal factors usually cause abortion during the second trimester and include:
•maternal infection, severe malnutrition, and abnormalities of the reproductive organs (especially an incompetent cervix, in which the cervix dilates painlessly and bloodlessly in the second trimester) •endocrine problems, such as thyroid dysfunction or a luteal phase defect •trauma, including any surgery that requires manipulation of the pelvic organs •phospholipid antibody disorder •blood group incompatibility •drug ingestion. The goal of therapeutic abortion is to preserve the mother’s mental or physical health in cases of rape, unplanned pregnancy, or medical conditions, such as moderate or severe cardiac dysfunction.
» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Handbook of Diseases, 2003

Recurrent Infection: Principal Causes of Recurrent Infection
(The Diagnostic Approach to Symptoms and Signs in Pediatrics)

1.Normalhost
1.Upperrespiratory tract infections
2.Otitis media
3.Skin infections
4.Urinary tract infections
5.Pneumonia
6.Meningitis
7.Foreign body
2.Immunologically compromised host
1.Primaryimmunodeficiency
1.Primary B-Cell disorders
1.Transienthypogammaglobulinemia of infancy
2.X-linked (Bruton) agammaglobulinemia
3.Common variable immunodeficiency
4.Selective IgA deficiency
5.IgG subclass deficiencies
2.Primary T-cell disorders
1.Thymichypoplasia (DiGeorge syndrome)
3.Combined B- and T-cell disorders
1.Combinedimmunodeficiency
2.Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
3.Severe combined immunodeficiency
4.Immunodeficiency with thrombocytopeniaand eczema (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome)
5.X-linked CD-40 ligand deficiency
6.X-linked lymphoproliferative disease
7.Ataxia-telangiectasia
8.Hyper-IgE syndrome
9.Cartilage-hair hypoplasia
4.Disorders of phagocytic function
1.Congenitalneutropenia
2.Cyclic neutropenia
3.Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood
4.Chediak-Higashi syndrome
5.Disorders of the complement system
2.Secondary immunodeficiency
1.Immunosuppressiveagents
2.Sickle cell disease
3.Nephrotic syndrome
4.Burns
5.Uremia
6.Asplenia including splenectomy
7.Neutropenia
8.Lymphoid malignancy
9.Protein-calorie malnutrition
10.Human immunodeficiency virus infection
» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: The Diagnostic Approach to Symptoms and Signs in Pediatrics, 2006

Low birth weight: Medical causes
(Nursing: Interpreting Signs and Symptoms)
This section lists some fetal and placental causes of low birth weight as well as the associated signs and symptoms present in the neonate at birth.

Chromosomal aberrations.Abnormalities in the number, size, or configuration of chromosomes can cause low birth weight and possibly multiple congenital anomalies in a premature or SGA neonate. For example, a neonate with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) may be SGA and have prominent epicanthal folds, a flat-bridged nose, a protruding tongue, palmar simian creases, muscular hypotonia, and an umbilical hernia.

Cytomegalovirus infection.Although low birth weight in cytomegalovirus infection is usually associated with premature birth, the neonate may be SGA. Assessment at birth may reveal these classic signs: petechiae and ecchymoses, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly, which increases for several days. The neonate may also have a high fever, lymphadenopathy, tachypnea, and dyspnea, along with prolonged bleeding at puncture sites.

Placental dysfunction.With placental dysfunction, low birth weight and a wasted appearance occur in an SGA neonate. He may be symmetrically short or may appear relatively long for his low weight. Additional findings reflect the underlying cause. For example, if maternal hyperparathyroidism caused placental dysfunction, the neonate may exhibit muscle jerking and twitching, carpopedal spasm, ankle clonus, vomiting, tachycardia, and tachypnea.

Rubella (congenital).Usually, the low-birth-weight neonate with congenital rubella is born at term but is SGA. A characteristic “blueberry muffin” rash accompanies cataracts, purpuric lesions, hepatosplenomegaly, and a large anterior fontanel. Abnormal heart sounds, if present, vary with the type of associated congenital heart defect.

Varicella (congenital).With congenital varicella, low birth weight is accompanied by cataracts and skin vesicles.

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Nursing: Interpreting Signs and Symptoms, 2007


What causes Miscarriage?Causes: Miscarriage: May be caused by a fetal defect, problem with uterine environment, or some fever or infection.


Medical news summaries relating to Miscarriage:The following medical news items are relevant to causes of Miscarriage:

Availability of early pregnancy tests eliciting miscarriage panic
Facts on Gestational Diabetes
GI diet to assist cystic ovary disease
Hyperemesis symptoms similar to morning sickness
Lupus can be difficult to diagnose because of it's multitude of symptoms
Miscarriage influenced by excess weight
Obesity increases risk of complications during pregnancy

MISCARRIAGE CAUSES INFO & MORE


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