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Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune Info Spot

Latest information, news, research, & resources on varity of Autoimmune Diseases / Disorders.

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March 7th, 2010, 04:07 PM
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Autoimmune disease
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. In other words, the body actually attacks its own cells. The immune system mistakes some part of the body as a pathogen and attacks it. This may be restricted to certain organs (e.g. in thyroiditis) or involve a particular tissue in different places (e.g. Goodpasture's disease which may affect the basement membrane in both the lung and the kidney). The treatment of autoimmune diseases is typically with immunosuppression—medication which decreases the immune response.

There is an on-going discussion about when a disease should be considered autoimmune, leading to different criteria such as Witebsky's postulates.

1 Overview
2 Development of therapies
3 See also
4 References
5 External links

Name Accepted/suspected Hypersensitivity Autoantibody
Ankylosing Spondylitis Accepted [1] [2] [3]
Chagas disease Suspected[4]
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Suspected[5][6] anti-elastin, Abys against epithelial cells
Crohns Disease (one of two types of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease "IBD") Accepted[7] IV
Dermatomyositis Accepted[8]
Diabetes mellitus type 1 Accepted[7] IV
Endometriosis Suspected[9]
Goodpasture's syndrome Accepted[7] II Anti-Basement Membrane Collagen Type IV Protein
Graves' disease Accepted[7] II
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) Accepted[7] IV Anti-ganglioside
Hashimoto's disease Accepted[7] IV
Hidradenitis suppurativa Suspected[10]
Kawasaki disease Suspected
IgA nephropathy Suspected
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura Accepted[7] II
Interstitial cystitis Suspected[11]
Lupus erythematosus Accepted[7] III
Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Accepted[7]
Morphea Suspected[12]

Myasthenia gravis Accepted[7] II
Narcolepsy Accepted.[13]
Neuromyotonia Suspected[14]
Pemphigus vulgaris Accepted[7] II Anti-Desmogein 3
Pernicious anaemia Accepted[15] II
Psoriasis Accepted[16]
Psoriatic Arthritis Accepted[17]
Polymyositis Accepted[8]
Primary biliary cirrhosis Accepted[18] Anti-p62, Anti-sp100, Anti-Mitochondrial(M2)
Rheumatoid arthritis Accepted[7] III Rheumatoid factor
Schizophrenia Suspected[19][20][21]
Scleroderma Suspected[12] Anti-topoisomerase
Sjögren's syndrome Accepted[7]
Stiff person syndrome Suspected
Temporal arteritis (also known as "giant cell arteritis") Accepted[7] IV
Ulcerative Colitis (one of two types of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease "IBD") Accepted[7] IV
Vasculitis Accepted[22] III
Vitiligo Suspected[23][24]
Wegener's granulomatosis Accepted[25] Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic(cANCA)

Development of therapies
In both autoimmune and inflammatory diseases the condition arises through aberrant reactions of the human adaptive or innate immune systems. In autoimmunity, the patient’s immune system is activated against the body's own proteins. In inflammatory diseases, it is the overreaction of the immune system, and its subsequent downstream signaling (TNF, IFN, etc), which causes problems.

A substantial minority of the population suffers from these diseases, which are often chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening. There are more than eighty illnesses caused by autoimmunity.[26] It has been estimated that autoimmune diseases are among the ten leading causes of death among women in all age groups up to 65 years.[27]

Currently, a considerable amount of research is being conducted into treatment of these conditions. According to a report from Frost & Sullivan, the total alliance payouts in the autoimmune/inflammation segment from 1997 to 2002 totaled $489.8 million, where Eli Lilly, Suntory, Procter & Gamble, Encysive, and Novartis together account for 98.6 percent of alliance payouts.[28]

See also
Systemic autoimmune diseases
Immune-mediated disease
[edit] References
1.^ HLA-B27 and Ankylosing Spondylitis, HLAB27.com Ankylosing Spondylitis, Spondyloarthropathies, Spondyloarthritis: Muhammad Asim Khan
2.^ Inflammatory Diseases of Immune Dysregulation, IDID: Inflammatory Diseases of Immune Dysregulation, IDID (Immune Mediated Inflammatory Disease) Defined
3.^ Khan MA, Khan MK (1982). "Diagnostic Value of HLA-B27 Testing in Ankylosing Spondylitis and Reiter's Syndrome". Annals of Internal Medicine January 1, 1982 vol. 96 no. 1 70-76 96 (1): 70-76; author reply 76. PMID 7053711.
4.^ Hyland KV, Engman DM (2006). "Further thoughts on where we stand on the autoimmunity hypothesis of Chagas disease". Trends Parasitol. 22 (3): 101–2; author reply 103. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2006.01.001. PMID 16446117.
5.^ Agustí A, MacNee W, Donaldson K, Cosio M. (2003). "Hypothesis: does COPD have an autoimmune component?". Thorax 58 (10): 832–834. doi:10.1136/thorax.58.10.832. PMID 14514931.
6.^ Lee SH, Goswami S, Grudo A, et al. (2007). "Antielastin autoimmunity in tobacco smoking-induced emphysema". Nat. Med. 13 (5): 567–9. doi:10.1038/nm1583. PMID 17450149.
7.^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o MeSH Autoimmune+Diseases
8.^ a b "Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis: Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue: Merck Manual Home Edition". Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis: Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue: Merck Manual Home Edition.
9.^ Gleicher N, el-Roeiy A, Confino E, Friberg J (1987). "Is endometriosis an autoimmune disease?". Obstetrics and gynecology 70 (1): 115–22. PMID 3110710.
10.^ "Clinical Trial: Etanercept in Hidradenitis Suppurativa". Etanercept in Hidradenitis Suppurativa - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved 2007-07-08.
11.^ Kárpáti F, Dénes L, Büttner K (1975). "[Interstitial cystitis=autoimmune cyatitis? Interstitial as a participating disease in lupus erythematosus]" (in German). Zeitschrift für Urologie und Nephrologie 68 (9): 633–9. PMID 1227191.
12.^ a b Takehara K, Sato S (2005). "Localized scleroderma is an autoimmune disorder". Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 44 (3): 274–9. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keh487. PMID 15561734.
13.^ "Narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder, Stanford researcher says". EurekAlert. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2009-05-03. Narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder, Stanford researcher says. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
14.^ Maddison P (2006). "Neuromyotonia". Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 117 (10): 2118–27. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2006.03.008. PMID 16843723.
15.^ "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Pernicious anemia". Pernicious anemia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
16.^ National Psoriasis Foundation, National Psoriasis Foundation - About: Plaque Psoriasis & Psoriasis Guttate
17.^ National Psoriasis Foundation, National Psoriasis Foundation - National Psoriasis Foundation: Dedicated to finding a cure
18.^ "Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Fatty Liver, Cirrhosis, and Related Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition". Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Fatty Liver, Cirrhosis, and Related Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
19.^ Eaton WW, Byrne M, Ewald H, et al. (2006). "Association of schizophrenia and autoimmune diseases: linkage of Danish national registers". The American journal of psychiatry 163 (3): 521–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.521. PMID 16513876.
20.^ Jones AL, Mowry BJ, Pender MP, Greer JM (2005). "Immune dysregulation and self-reactivity in schizophrenia: do some cases of schizophrenia have an autoimmune basis?". Immunol. Cell Biol. 83 (1): 9–17. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1711.2005.01305.x. PMID 15661036.
21.^ Strous RD, Shoenfeld Y (2006). "Schizophrenia, autoimmunity and immune system dysregulation: a comprehensive model updated and revisited". J. Autoimmun. 27 (2): 71–80. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2006.07.006. PMID 16997531.
22.^ "Autoimmune Disorders: Immune Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition". Autoimmune Disorders: Immune Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition.
23.^ "Questions and Answers about Vitiligo". Q&A about Vitiligo. Retrieved 2007-08-06.
24.^ "A New Gene Linked to Vitiligo and Susceptibility to Autoimmune Disorders - Journal Watch Dermatology". A New Gene Linked to Vitiligo and Susceptibility to Autoimmune Disorders - Dermatology. Retrieved 2007-08-06.
25.^ Sánchez-Cano D, Callejas-Rubio JL, Ortego-Centeno N (April 2008). "Effect of rituximab on refractory Wegener granulomatosis with predominant granulomatous disease". J Clin Rheumatol 14 (2): 92–3. doi:10.1097/RHU.0b013e31816b4487. PMID 18391678. Wolters Kluwer Health - Article Landing Page.
26.^ National Institutes of Health[1]
27.^ Noel R. Rose and Ian R. MacKay, “The Autoimmune Diseases” fourth edition
28.^ Frost & Sullivan Report, “Antibody Technology Developments” September 2005
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March 16th, 2010, 09:51 PM
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Autoimmune Disorders


Overview | Related Pages
What is the immune system?

The immune system is the body's means of protection against microorganisms and other "foreign" substances. It is composed of two major parts. One component, B lymphocytes, produces antibodies, proteins that attack "foreign" substances and cause them to be removed from the body; this is sometimes called the humoral immune system. The other component consists of special white blood cells called T lymphocytes, which can attack "foreign" substances directly; this is sometimes called the cellular immune system. It takes time for both components of the immune system to develop. T lymphocytes become protective, and antibodies are developed after a person is exposed to specific "foreign" threats. Over a lifetime, the immune system develops an extensive library of identified substances and microorganisms that are cataloged as “threat” or “not threat.” Vaccinations utilize this process to add to the library. They expose a person’s immune system to weakened or inactivated forms of bacteria and viruses that can no longer cause disease, so that the person’s immune system will recognize them and create antibodies that will be ready to protect against the infectious forms of these microorganisms if the person comes in contact with them in the future.

Normally, the immune system can distinguish between “self” and “not self” and only attacks those tissues that it recognizes as “not self.” This is usually the desired response, but not always. When a person is given an organ transplant, the immune system will correctly recognize the new organ as “not self” (unless it is from an identical twin) and will attack it in a process called rejection. To prevent rejection, the transplant patient must take drugs that reduce the activity of the immune system (immunosuppressants) for the rest of his life.

What are autoimmune disorders?

Autoimmune disorders are diseases caused by the body producing an inappropriate immune response against its own tissues. Sometimes the immune system will cease to recognize one or more of the body’s normal constituents as “self” and will create autoantibodies – antibodies that attack its own cells, tissues, and/or organs. This causes inflammation and damage and it leads to autoimmune disorders.

The cause of autoimmune diseases is unknown, but it appears that there is an inherited predisposition to develop autoimmune disease in many cases. In a few types of autoimmune disease (such as rheumatic fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.

Autoimmune disorders fall into two general types:

those that damage many organs (systemic autoimmune diseases) and those where only a single organ or tissue is directly damaged by the autoimmune process (localized).
However, the distinctions become blurred as the effect of localized autoimmune disorders frequently extends beyond the targeted tissues, indirectly affecting other body organs and systems. Some of the most common types of autoimmune disorders include:

Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

•Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Juvenile RA (JRA) (joints; less commonly lung, skin)
•Lupus [Systemic Lupus Erythematosus] (skin, joints, kidneys, heart, brain, red blood cells, other)
•Scleroderma (skin, intestine, less commonly lung)
•Sjögren's syndrome (salivary glands, tear glands, joints)
•Goodpasture's syndrome (lungs, kidneys)
•Wegener's granulomatosis (blood vessels, sinuses, lungs, kidneys)
•Polymyalgia Rheumatica (large muscle groups)
•Guillain-Barre syndrome (nervous system)
•Localized Autoimmune Diseases

•Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (pancreas islets)
•Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease (thyroid)
•Celiac disease, Crohn's disease, Ulcerative colitis (GI tract)
•Multiple sclerosis (There is still some debate as to whether MS is an autoimmune disease.)
•Addison's disease (adrenal)
•Primary biliary cirrhosis, Sclerosing cholangitis, Autoimmune hepatitis (liver)
•Temporal Arteritis / Giant Cell Arteritis (arteries of the head and neck)
For a more complete list of autoimmune conditions, visit the Patient Information page of the American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association, Inc.

In some cases, a person may have more than one autoimmune disease; for example, persons with Addison's disease often have type 1 diabetes, while persons with sclerosing cholangitis often have ulcerative colitis.

In some cases, the antibodies may not be directed at a specific tissue or organ; for example, antiphospholipid antibodies can react with clotting proteins in the blood, leading to formation of blood clots within the blood vessels (thrombosis).

Autoimmune disorders are diagnosed, evaluated, and monitored through a combination of autoantibody blood tests, blood tests to measure inflammation and organ function, clinical presentation, and through non-laboratory examinations such as X-rays. There is currently no cure for autoimmune disorders, although in rare cases they may disappear on their own. Many people may experience flare-ups and temporary remissions in symptoms, others chronic symptoms or a progressive worsening.

Treatment of autoimmune disorders is tailored to the individual and may change over time. The goal is to relieve symptoms, minimize organ and tissue damage, and preserve organ function. New treatments and a greater understanding of autoimmune disorders are being researched. Patients should talk to their doctors and to any specialists they are referred to about their treatment options.
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